Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2010). Measures of Australia's Progress. Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/by%20Subject/1370.0~2010~Chapter~Coastal%20development%20(220.127.116.11)
The expansion of coastal urban development places increasing pressure on the natural environment through the effects of land clearing, waste disposal and pollution. Building along the foreshore and on sand dunes can affect the coastal landscape, coastal processes, and the natural movement of sand. Structures built on the coastline can increase erosion, leading to the need for beach replenishment. Coastal planning and management is now being undertaken to try to take into account these physical processes to avoid further erosion. As well as increased erosion, coastal communities are also vulnerable to rising sea levels, tropical cyclones and a loss of wetlands. In addition, the discharge of sewage and stormwater, land run-off, groundwater, and river inputs of nutrients and sediments to estuaries and the coastal waters constitutes one of Australia's greatest coastal management challenges (NLWRA 2002).